MSC AGRICULTURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Masters

1.0 Introduction

The Faculty of Agriculture has been offering training for M.Sc. degree in the specialized areas of Agriculture such as agronomy, horticulture, plant breeding, agricultural economics, animal production, food science and technology, land and water management, plant pathology and crop protection.  The qualified persons have played strategic roles in the development of the Agricultural Industry in the region.  Agricultural research requires training in specialized areas because enough depth of coverage in agricultural science and its application will have been made to facilitate effective performance by the graduate.  There is a growing need in the industry for graduates who take a holistic approach to solving agricultural problems especially in the tropical and subtropical countries. The public agricultural extension service, private sector, Non Governmental Organizationsfind it more expensive to hire a multiple of professionals rather than one individual to solve multifaceted agricultural problems. It was for the foregoing reasons that the degree of M.Sc. in Agricultural Resource Management was developed. The program is intended to produce agricultural resource managers with broad-based training in all aspects of agriculture and natural resource management. 

 

The revised MSc. In Agricultural Resource Management curriculum has introduced flexibility in the mode of delivery and it is harmonized with other Masters programmes in the Faculty of Agriculture. Open and distance learning mode is preferred by employers and the self employed since it allows students to undertake training while still on the job.

The revised curriculum is therefore, designed to offer client-friendly training in agricultural resource management to produce graduates who are well prepared and equipped for the modern job market.

 

The objectives of the course are:

         i.            To use a holistic approach to provision of skills needed in agricultural research and solving agricultural problems in the region.

        ii.            To contribute to advancement of agricultural science and natural resource management.

 

2.0 Admission Requirements

The common regulations for the Masters degrees in all faculties of the University of Nairobi shall apply. The following shall be eligible for admission to the Master of Science in Agricultural Resource Management:

2.1      A holder of Bachelor of Science degree with at least Upper Second Class Honours or equivalent in Agricultural Science, Biological Science, Environmental Science, Forestry and other relevant disciplines from the University of  Nairobi or any other equivalent institutions recognized by Senate.

2.2      A holder of a Bachelor’s degree, of Lower Second Class Honours in any of the degree categories specified in (2.1) above with a relevant Postgraduate Diploma or other equivalent qualifications from the University of Nairobi or any other equivalent institution recognized by Senate or with at least two years relevant work experience. 

2.3      A holder of pass degree in any of the degree categories specified in (2.1) above with a relevant Postgraduate Diploma or other equivalent qualifications from the University of Nairobi or any other equivalent institution recognized by Senate, and at least two years of relevant work experience

2.4. A holder of pass degree in any of the degree categories specified in (2.1) above with at least five years relevant work experience.

 

3.0 Transfer of Credit and Exemptions

3.1 A candidate may be exempted from taking some course units and be allowed to transfer credits of the same up to a maximum of one third (⅓) of the taught units provided that these are from institutions recognized by the University of Nairobi Senate.

3.2 A candidate seeking transfer of credit shall send a formal application to the Board of Postgraduate Studies, through the Dean, Faculty of Agriculture, justifying and supporting the request.

3.3 Transfer of credits shall be processed only after payment of the prescribed non-refundable fees.

 

4. 0 Course Structure and Duration

The programme will be offered as full time, part time and through Open, Distance and e-Learning (ODeL) for students who cannot attend regular University programmes.

 

4.1    Full-time and Part time

4.1.1           The degree program shall consist of coursework, examinations and thesis. The course work shall consist of a total of 12 courses out of which 8 shall be core courses and 4 major courses.

4.1.2           Each candidate shall be required to specialize in only one of the five major areas and take all the four courses in that major.

4.1.3           Each course unit shall have 45 hours covered in one semester.

4.1.4           The programme shall cover a minimum of 4 semesters and a maximum of 8 semesters and each semester shall be of 15 weeks duration. Part-time students shall be required to take a minimum of two and a maximum of four courses in one semester.

4.1.5           Each candidate will be required to undertake a research project leading to a thesis. The research theme shall be within the area of specialization shall be made in consultation with the academic supervisor(s).

4.1.6           The thesis research and thesis preparation shall be equivalent to eight course units.

4.1.7           Each candidate shall be required to present two seminars on the thesis research, one on completion of the research proposal and the other upon completion of the said research.

 

4.3. Open, Distance and e-Learning (ODeL)

The course structure and requirements through ODeL mode remains the same as under full-time or part-time. However, the mode of delivery will be through open, distance and e-learning modes involving largely home and/ or office-based media:

4.3.1 Written self instructional study modules issued at registration time

i.                Study course materials like booklets

ii.              Relevant literature

iii.             Interactive devices and self tests

4.3.2 Mediated technical learning materials for example:-

i.       Audio visual

ii.      e-learning materials

4.3.3 Limited face-to-face sessions to provide overview of the course at commencement of semester, mid semester and revision period before examinations.

4.3.4 Support study centers at the University of Nairobi

i.                Access to information through computers at the University of Nairobi.

ii.              Use of libraries at the University of Nairobi.

4.3.6 Orientation (immediately after registration):

i.                Orientation in ODeL delivery.

ii.              Study, reading and computer skills.

iii.             Time management and techniques of handling assignments.

iv.            Mentorship, guidance and counseling.

v.              Emphasis is on satellite centers that serve as a link between the University and the student in the following manner: registration, collecting reading materials, collecting results and programmes, examination information, posting timetable and holding meetings.

 

5. 0 Course Outline

Core courses

CODE

TITLE

Hours

Semester

ACS 600

Biometrics for Agricultural Sciences

45

1

ACP 612

Research Methods and Scientific Communication

45

1

ALM610

Remote sensing and GIS

45

1

ART601

Agricultural production systems

45

1

ART602

Markets and marketing of agricultural products

45

1

ART603

Environmental management and post harvest technology

45

1

ALM606

Project planning and management

45

2

ACA601

Agro-meteorology and climate change

45

2

 

Total

360

 

 

Specialization areas

 

 

 

Major 1: Plants, ecosystems and environment

180

 

ART611

Biodiversity and biotechnology

45

2

ACA603

Crop and forage production systems

45

2

ACS605

Plant nutrition and soil fertility

45

2

ACS603

Crop pest management

45

2

 

Major 2: Animals, ecosystems and environment

180

 

ART621

Biodiversity and animal genetic resources

45

2

ART622

Animal nutrition and feed resources

45

2

ART623

Animal production systems and animal health

45

2

ART624

Integrated management systems in animal production

45

2

 

Major 3: Resource economics

180

 

ART631

Agricultural development planning

45

2

ART632

Agricultural resource economics

45

2

ART633

Social economics and resource management

45

2

ART634

Resource policy and law

45

2

 

Major 4: Soils, water and environment

180

 

ALM608

Land degradation and rehabilitation

45

2

ALM609

Watershed management

45

2

ALM605

Irrigation and drainage

45

2

ALM 604

Nutrient cycling, modeling and management

45

2

 

Major 5: Post harvest technology and management

180

 

ART651

Storage of agricultural products

45

2

ART652

Processing and preservation of agricultural products

45

2

ART653

Agro-industrial waste management

45

2

AFS 610

Food safety policy, standards and laws

45

2

 

 

 

 

ART660

Thesis (Equivalent to 8 courses)

360

3 & 4

 

TOTAL

900

 

 

6.0 Examination Regulations

6.1          Written Examination

6.1.1       Each course shall be examined separately by a written examination at the end of the semester in which it is offered.

6.1.2       Each written examination shall be allocated three hours.

6.1.3       Candidates shall be required to pass all examinations in the core courses and in the major areas of specialization as well as the project before award of degree.

6.1.4           Written examinations in each course shall constitute 70% and the continuous assessment tests 30% of the final mark.

6.1.5           The pass mark in each examination shall be 50% and grading shall be as follows:

A = 70% and above;

B = 60 – 69%;

C = 50 -59%;

6.1.6           A candidate who fails in any course unit may, on the recommendation of the Board of Examiners, and approval by the Senate be allowed to take a supplementary examination in the failed paper up to a maximum of two timesafter paying the appropriate fees.

6.1.7           The mark for a supplementary examination shall be recorded as 50% in the candidate’s academic record.

6.1.8           A candidate who fails in the second supplementary examination or fails to complete the course in the prescribed time shall, on the recommendation of the Faculty Board and approval by Senate be discontinued.

6.2                Thesis examination

6.2.1           The thesis will be examined in accordance with the common regulations of the Faculty of Agriculture,University of Nairobi.

6.2.2           With the approval of the academic supervisorseach candidateshall submit for examination a thesis at the end of the final semester.

6.2.3           A candidate who fails in the thesis examination may on the recommendation of the Faculty Board of examiners be allowed to resubmit the thesis within six months up to a maximum of two times.

6.2.4  A candidate who fails after the second resubmission or fails to complete the course in the prescribed period shall, on the recommendation of the Faculty Board and approval by Senate, be discontinued.

 

7.0 Award of degree

Candidates who satisfy the examiners in all written and thesis examinations shall be awarded a Master of Science degree in Agricultural Resource Management.

 

8.0 Course Description

ACS 600: Biometrics for Agricultural Sciences (45 hrs)

Review of descriptive statistics and basic inference.  Overview of sampling concepts: simple random sampling and proportional sampling. The concept of power and sample size determination.  Principles of experimental design: randomization, replication, error control. Modeling: translating study designs into statistical models considering both treatment and blocking structure; assumptions underlying a model; approaches to model fitting; correct handling of continuous and factor explanatory variables; data analysis, presentation and interpretation of coefficients and model output; Techniques for generalized linear models. Principles of survey and questionnaire design.

 

ACP 612:  Research Methods and Scientific Communication (45 hrs)

Research process: problem analysis, literature review, developing the research question, hypotheses and objectives; understanding outputs/outcomes/impact; log frames and budget planning; research quality control including protocol development and critical review of research instruments such as questionnaires, field manuals, debriefing documents. Data management: disciplined use of spreadsheets for data entry, data validation, audit trails and archiving.  Scientific communication: thesis, scientific papers, power point slides, technical reports, posters, brochures, videos, policy briefs and press releases.

 

ALM 610 Remote Sensing and GIS (45 hrs)

Principles of remote sensing; visual image interpretation; digital image processing; image enhancement and correction techniques; image classification; general sensor technology; principles of Geographical Information Systems (GIS); data input systems; data management procedures; spatial data output/display; spatial queries and simple analysis; attribute data analysis and special application areas; remote sensing and GIS applications in agriculture; crop type classification, soil and crop condition assessment, crop yield estimation, soil moisture assessment, mapping of soil characteristics and management practices, and other environmental aspects.

 

ART601: Agricultural Production Systems (45 hrs)

Ecological conditions: agro-ecological zones, climate, water and nutrient cycles; ecological interactions:plants/animals/environment, competition, complementarity, energy flows, productivity and impact on ecosystem; biodiversity: definition, molecular basis of biodiversity, animal and plant genetic resources, utilization and conservation of genetic resources; production systems: plant/animal production systems, management of production systems; products: product harvesting, quality and economics of production; energy sources and uses.

 

ART602: Markets and Marketing for Agricultural Products (45 hrs)

Agricultural and food marketing: marketing systems, functions, boards etc; market liberalization: SAPs; WTO, parastatal reforms, channels; marketing strategy, planning and control: new product development, buyer behaviour, product management, channel distribution and channel management; direct marketing systems versus conventional marketing systems; developing custom or policy; price decision; marketing communications; marketing intelligence; marketing margins and costs; creation of market niches; vertical and horizontal integration; product mix identification; strengthening rural markets; export markets; potentials of producers/marketers and formation of farmer associations; survey on marketing systems; analysis of impacts of access to markets on livelihoods of small holders; research and projects of marketing systems; local alternative markets; access to markets niches; policies and by-laws on markets and marketing.

 

 

 

ART603: Environmental Management and Post harvest Technology (45 hrs)

Environmental management: Definition of soil and land; soil types and their characteristics; water resources for agriculture; management of soil water in humid and ASAL areas; integrated soil fertility management; environmental management: management of soil and water resources for sustainable use, soil quality enhancement through carbon sequestration, water quality management, water harvesting and conservation; pesticides: handling and disposal, pesticide residue levels, alternatives to pesticides and complementary measures.

Post harvest technology: Causes of deterioration of stored foods - primary and secondary causes; control of deterioration of stored foods; common and traditional storage methods; modern storage methods of stable foods; refrigerated storage, modified atmosphere storage, and hypobaric storage for perishable food products, protective packaging and commodity treatments for perishable food products.  Principles of food processing and preservation of food: traditional food processing and preservation, concentration and dehydration, natural and artificial acidification, thermal processing, use of chemicals; application of food storage, processing and preservation at the farm level.

 

ALM 606: Project Planning and Management (45 hrs)

Concepts of project planning and appraisal; Environmental impact assessment; planning process; project cycle analysis (PCA); log-frame analysis (LFA); project inputs and outputs/production; project accounts: records, budgeting, balance sheet and cash flow analysis; cost-benefit methods: pricing of costs and benefits of project investments, and cost-benefit analysis (CBA); appraisal/evaluation of development projects (discounted and undiscounted methods: ranking by inspection, payback, Returns Over Interest, Benefits/Cost Ratio, Internal Rate of Return, Net Present Value, and amortization).

 

ACA 601: Agrometeorology and Climate Change in Crop Production (45 hrs)

Measurement of meteorological elements. Spatial and temporal characteristics of weather elements; their variability and effects on crop production. Causes, trends and impacts of climate change and variability and effects in crop production; variability in meteorological factors and their influence on infestation of pests/diseases. Major fluxes; CO2, water vapour, energy and wind transfer processes within plant environment and their effects of crops. Factors that determine evaporative demand of the atmosphere; Penman-Monteith Equation; evapotranspiration and implications on crop water management. Occurrences and frequencies of meteorological hazards and their mitigation strategies. Crop adaptation to climatic stresses (drought, temperature, flooding, wind, salinity). Application of indigenous weather knowledge on climate variability and adaptation/coping strategies. Mitigation strategies and modification of microclimate in agriculture (irrigation, windbreaks, tillage, mulching, precision farming). Climatic risk assessment tools applicable in agriculture - stochastic weather generators; crop-weather models. Application of meteorological forecasts inevaluating expected crop yields. Interpretation and application of meteorological data, forecasts and information in agricultural planning and strategic management (agricultural calendars, response farming, insurance, marketing). Policy issues on climate change – national, regional and global, carbon trade. Important treaties and conventions; Implementation of treaties/conventions and main challenges.

 

Plants, Ecosystems and Environment

ART611: Biodiversity and Biotechnology (45 hrs)

Biodiversity: Principles of biodiversity: genetic and species biodiversity, ecological diversity; applications: plant breeding, soil fertility management, crop protection - beneficial and harmful organisms; loss of biodiversity and indicators: species dominance, loss of species, diseases and pest epidemics; causes of loss of biodiversity: rapid population growth, poverty, inappropriate government policies, deforestation, pollution and environmental degradation; biodiversity conservation - policy issues.
Biotechnology: Definitions; historical development; overview of DNA structure, replication, transcription and translation; important enzymes in biotechnology: restriction endonucleases, DNA ligases, reverse transcriptase; enabling techniques including southern, northern and western blotting, DNA sequencing; cloning and selections of recombinants in E. coli; genetic engineering of plant tissues; applications of biotechnology: recombinant DNA technology, plant tissue, cell and organ culture, variety identification, plant disease diagnosis; social issues in biotechnology: biosafety, bioethics, intellectual property rights.

 

ACA 603: Crop and Forage Production Systems (45 hrs)

National, regional and global crop production trends, challenges and opportunities. Factors influencing crop production systems; Energy flow efficiencies in crop production systems. Crop production systems: types and characteristics of crop production systems; subsistence and market oriented: shifting cultivation, plantation, mixed cropping, agroforestry, precision farming, protected farming, hydroponics, dryland and irrigated; field, horticultural (fruits, vegetables, ornamentals), beverage, fibre and biofuel production systems. Global food crisis; effects of improved livelihoods and demand for animal products; global and regional contribution of livestock to food security and livelihoods; forage production constraints and opportunities solved by both forage quantity and quality, land, soil and water improvement interventions; production and management of feed resources under different livestock production systems (range-based, intensive, small livestock production systems with sheep, goats, pig and poultry). Forage science in the realm of environmental agronomy; ecological ‘conditioners’ of primary production as a support system for secondary production; Improving the ecology of pastureland production. Seed for forage and range pastures.

 

ACS 605: Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility (45 hrs)

Plant nutrition and implication in crop productivity; Soil fertility and fertilizer use trends and effects on crop productivity; Mechanism of nutrient uptake, metabolism and utilization. Major nutrient cycles (C, N, P, S). Crop fertilizer requirements: diagnosis, fertilizer use efficiency, fertilizer choice, methods of application, cost implications; crop response to fertilizer application; soil pH and liming; integrated nutrient management: organic and inorganic fertilizers, bio-fertilizers; symbiotic associations; soil conditioners, rhizosphere associations; Estimating crop nutrient requirements, methods of soil and plant nutrient analysis; matching crop nutrient demand and supply; nutrient management in hydroponic systems; nutrients and environmental pollution. Technological advances that increase fertilizer use efficiency.

 

ACS 603: Crop Pest Management (45 hrs)

Overview of weed science and management; Weed management - crop (field and horticultural) quality and environmental implications; Invasive weed species, origin, spread and their management; Climatic change and weed species dynamics; Biotechnology issues in weed science (GMOs, resistance, genetic pollution), Research methods. Diseases – economic importance and losses caused by plant diseases; characteristics of causal agents of plant diseases: bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses; disease recognition; sources of disease inoculum; spread of plant diseases; disease and pest epidemiology; management of pests and disease; effects of climate change; safety and food quality issues; climate change ; principles of plant disease and pest management (disease, pests, and weeds); Environmental considerations in crop protection. Insect classification and identification, damage on crops and their management. Environmental considerations in crop protection.

 

Animals, Ecosystems, Environment

ART621: Biodiversity and Animal Genetic Resources (45 hrs)

Biodiversity in the animal kingdom; molecular evidence of biodiversity - essential features of DNA in context of gene allele, chromosome, cell, tissue, organism and population; identification of DNA as the genetic material: DNA replication, RNA synthesis (transcription), protein synthesis and genetic recombination; characterization of genetic biodiversity using molecular markers; factors affecting gene and genotype frequencies in population; quantitative traits – their recognition and measurement; components of phenotypic variation and concepts of heritability, repeatability and genetic correlation; concepts of genotype and environment correlations; mating systems – inbreeding and cross breeding structure and breeding systems; breeding of species: dairy and beef cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry; new developments in animal breeding (AI. MOEST cloning); review of intra and inter-population genetic and phenotypic variation and evolution; an inventory of domestic animal genetic resources of Eastern Africa; conservation and utilization of animal genetic resources of eastern Africa; sustainability in utilization of indigenous animal genetic resources in eastern Africa.

 

ART622: Animal Nutrition and Feed Resources (45 hrs)

Importance and utilization of nutrients in animals: macronutrients - carbohydrates, proteins and fats and micronutrients - vitamins and minerals; techniques of assessing feed quality – Chemical: proximate, detergent system, gross energy and minerals determination, biological methods - in vitro, in sacco and in vivo; protein quality assessment; partition of food energy; nutrient requirement for maintenance, growth and production; roughages: natural and ley pastures (common species, factors affecting their productive value); fodder crops (common species, factors affecting their productive value); crop residues (their quality and factors affecting their utilization); feed conservation (matching animal production and feed availability); Concentrates: types and their use in animal feeding; feed additives (types, constraints, challenges and opportunities of their use) - use of antibiotics, enzymes, probiotics and biocomplexes; interaction between livestock production and environment (overgrazing, alienation of forest land for grazing, emissions); competition between man and livestock for resources.

 

ART623: Animal Production Systems and Animal Health (45 hrs)

Principles and classification of animal production systems; ecological parameters; integration of animal production systems with crop production systems; livestock industries; economic considerations; animal and environment interaction; livestock bioclimatology: effect of physical environment on livestock, controlled environment, functions and design of animal structures and effect on animal performance; ruminant (beef, dairy, sheep and goats) and non-ruminant (pigs and poultry) production systems: heard and flock structures, ecology and systems of production (intensive and extensive systems), structures and equipment, production/breeding cycles and management aspects, production records, product harvesting and quality, economics of production; association between production and diseases, economic importance of diseases, planning and management of production systems in relation to disease control, herd/flock health management for various species, diseases spectrum in production system.

 

ART624: Integrated Systems in Animal Production (45 hrs)

Definitions; components: plants, animals – domestic, wildlife, birds and fish; factors leading to choice of a system: climate, soils, biological, socio-cultural, physical, and economic. Types of integrated management systems: integrated systems in arid and semi-arid lands (ASAL) – integrated beef production, integrated production of domesticated stock, multi-species production system (domestic and wildlife), eco-tourism; integrated management system in high potential areas: livestock – crop production, livestock – livestock, rice cum fish production; advantages of integrated production systems: food production, preservation of genetic material, soil fertility management, spreading of risks, efficiency in utilization of resources, provision of multi-products/services;  disadvantages: overstocking and overgrazing, disease transmission, transaction costs; management of the integrated systems.

 

Resource Economics

ART631: Agricultural Development Planning (45 hrs)

Planning for uncertainty in commodity markets; price shocks; adjustment response; strategies for international trade; interest rates policies and debt management; strategies and measures to avoid dependency on primary commodity exports and reliance on external borrowing and dominant role of public sector; rural resources: fisheries development, water harvesting, community-based irrigation and rain fed agriculture, desertification and environmental degradation, equitable distribution and agro-rural enterprises; capacity building: human resources development through health, education, training, and awareness creation; institutional strengthening and marketing: restructuring of agricultural institutions (AFC, ADC, NCPB), land adjudication and information systems, land use planning policy, sectoral linkages, institutional and legal frame work to enhance planning, district planning at community level, marketing institutions; technology: agricultural research, indigenous and modern technology.  

 

ART632: Agricultural Resource Economics (45 hrs)

National agricultural production; agricultural patterns and farming systems; utilization and conservation of natural resources; food production versus cash cropping; agricultural policies; prices of inputs and outputs; farm incomes; farm planning – land, labour, capital and other resources; agricultural credit; co-operatives; agricultural marketing; farm records and accounting; external forces in development process (SAPS, WTO, PRSP); institutional theories, transaction costs and performance; tools of economic enquiry and analysis (production functions); household economies (home production, Women’s role in economic development); gender and agricultural resource development; sustainable economic development; growth functions of renewable resources; allocation of depletable and renewable resources; replenishable but depletable resources (water); reproducible private property resources (food); storable, renewable resources (forests); renewable common-property resources (fisheries); generalized resource scarcity, pollution and international trade; detrimental externalities and non convexities in the production set; optimal pricing of exhaustible resources; environmental protection and income distribution; economic impact assessment; case study and analysis in agricultural resource management.

 

ART633: Social Economics and Resource Management (45 hrs)

Sociological aspects: land cultivators in agrarian society, sociological research on agrarian societies, traditional societies, farmer attitudes towards social change; economics of agrarian reform; agricultural sciences and community development; characteristics of societies: rural, urban pastoral peasants; sociological models in agricultural development; rural sociology and community resource development; conceptualization and assumption in community and community development; community mobilization for building social capital, resource and extension; community participation in extension education, methods, ethics and planning; extension theory and practice; gender analysis and issues in community development: poverty, resource and environment management; social change models/strategies; indigenous versus modern technologies and employment creation; evaluation and action research; extension; management of extension organizations; programming formulations, simulated measures, estimation of the projection model and measures of increasing productivity; project analysis and social profitability; cost-benefit analysis and presentation of the analysis; methods of social investigation: sources of data, sample survey with formal interviews, the self-completed questionnaire, analysis and presentation of results; tools for social scientist: measurement strategies, techniques for non interval data, dynamic analysis, PRA.

 

ART634: Resource Policy and Law (45 hrs)

Policy: Meaning of agricultural policy; policy and economic development; categories of policy; characteristics of least developed countries and importance of agricultural sector; problems of agricultural industry (supply and demand); role of government in policy implementation (import levies, quota, price policy, food policy); agricultural development policy in Kenya (settlers to SAPs); land tenure and reform policy (land settlement issues); agricultural credit and policies: subsidies, credit channels, small-holder credit; research and policy in agriculture; agricultural policy and employment; Kenya’s development plans and their policy implications; welfare system as criteria for policy; pareto optimum considerations; coordination of agricultural sub-sectors; instrument of environmental policy and economics: public policy toward fisheries, national livestock development policy, national land use policy, water policy; harmonization of  legal and policy frameworks.

Law: The legal framework for the management of agricultural resources; land tenure and agricultural resource management; the legal regulation of the planting, processing and marketing of special crops – coffee, cotton, pyrethrum, sisal and tea; the legal regulation of agricultural produce marketing and export; the legal regime of agricultural co-operative societies; legal implications of access to credit and development of the agricultural sectors; legal aspects of the development and transfer of technology for agricultural resource management; plant breeders’ rights and plant protection laws and their implications for agricultural resource management; land use laws and agricultural resource management.

 

Soil, Water and Environment

ALM 608: Land Degradation and Rehabilitation (45 hrs)

Land degradation and desertification; concepts of soil quality and, soil resilience; p physical, chemical and biological degradation of soil; forms of soil degradation, desertification processes and indicators; occurrence, causes, effects, prevention of desertification; soil compaction and hardsetting; modeling erosion and sedimentation processes; mapping erosion susceptibility and erosion hazard; revegetation  of denuded land, reseeding methods; soil salinity and alkalinity: classes of salt-affected soils, salt balance, leaching of excess salts;  soil-induced mass movement; monitoring slope instability and landslides;  environmental impacts of mining and quarrying and road construction; reclamation of abandoned quarries mines, and road embankments.

 

ALM 609: Watershed Management (45 hrs)

The concept of watershed management; objectives of watershed development; components of a watershed; principles of watershed planning and management; land use systems and deterioration of natural resources; land use determinants and soil productivity indicators; sustainable agricultural land use systems; deterioration and loss of water resources; strategies and approaches for conservation of watersheds; management of crop land and grazing land for conservation of soil and water; regional river basin development authorities in Kenya; case studies of watershed management; socio-economic aspects of watershed management; application of GIS in watershed management.

 

ALM 605: Irrigation and Drainage (45 hrs)

Irrigation practices; methods of irrigation: surface, sprinkler, and micro-irrigation systems; water use efficiency; organization operation and maintenance of irrigation schemes; services of a water management organization; economic concepts in irrigation practice; water quality for irrigation; reclamation and management of salt-affected soils; land drainage for agriculture; drainage problems; sources of excess water, drainage systems; groundwater drainage systems; subsurface flow into drains; field drainage criteria for rainfed and irrigated area; drainage surveys; drainage of specific soils: heavy clay soil, peat soils; drainage of paddy rice fields; drainage for salinity control; critical groundwater depth; salt balance.

ALM 604: Nutrient Cycling, Modeling and Management (45 hrs)

Nutrient inputs, nutrient outputs, nutrient balances, nutrient cycling and nutrient capital; organic and inorganic sources of nutrients in agroecosystems; nutrient cycle in natural systems and agroecosystems, N and P cycling in agroecosystems; role of organisms in nutrient recycling; tools for tracking nutrient flows and balances in agroecosystems - resource flow diagramming and nutrient monitoring Nutrient Monitoring (NUTMON), Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM), Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT), CENTURY models), soil nutrient balances as indicators of sustainability; socio-economic factors influencing soil nutrient flows and management in agroecosystems; bioconversion of organic waste for their recycling in agroecosystems, technology development for integrated nutrient management; policy implications on nutrient management in agro-ecosystems

Postharvest Technology and Management

ART651: Storage of Agricultural Products (45 hrs)

Deterioration of stored food products: physical, chemical and biochemical, biological: microorganisms, insects, pests and rodents; control of deterioration: modification of environment, chemical and irradiation, biosafety factors; storage loss assessment; storage technology; storage systems for perishable products: common storage, refrigerated storage, modified atmosphere storage, hypobaric storage; storage systems for stables; traditional storage, modern storage; storage structures.

 

ART652: Processing and Preservation of Agricultural Products (45 hrs)

Reasons for food processing and preservation; methods of preservation: lowering of temperature – cold and frozen storage, heat treatment, pasteurization, sterilization, blanching, lowering of water activity (concentration, chemical treatment, drying), alteration of chemical composition (addition of sugar and salt, acidification, alcohol preservation, addition of preservatives), irradiation; nutritional implications of processing and preservation; application of processing and preservation at farm level.

 

ART653: Agro-industrial Waste Management (45 hrs)

Types of wastes; harmful effects of wastes; waste reduction at source: selection of process, process design, process modification, waste recycling, waste reuse, waste as by-product, good housekeeping; waste treatment and transformation: solid wastes - incineration, composting, gasification, disposal; liquid wastes - waste stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, activated sludge systems, anaerobic treatment; gaseous wastes - chimney design, scrubbing.

 

AFS 610: Food Safety Policy, Standards and Laws (45 hrs)

Concept of food safety policy; policy on food safety and security; policy on food production, harvesting and post-harvest handling, and marketing of food; nutrition vs. food safety; National, regional and international trade policy initiatives in food safety; ethics, marketing and trade issues especially WTO, COMESA, EU, EAC; food safety standards; framework for food safety standards; National, regional and international organizations involved in food policy and standards; established/existing national standards and legislations (Public Health Act, Food Drug and Chemical Substances, Water Act, Occupational health and safety etc), regional standards and legislations (East African Community, COMESA)  and international standards and legislations (European Union, USA, Soviet Union, Asia and China Food laws and regulations). private/organizational/specific products food safety standards and regulations  qualitative food safety matrix in trade; Specific case studies.

 

ART 660: Thesis (360 hrs)

In consultation with their academic supervisors, candidates will choose a topic from their field of study for their research and develop a proposal. The student will design a research proposal which will be approved by the department before embarking on research. The candidates will then carry out a study in the field/industry and/or laboratory, collect and analyze data, and write a thesis at the end of the research.  The thesis will be submitted for examination followed by oral assessment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Documents

 

Courses

Title Course Code Course Hours Semester Year
Agro-meteorology and climate change ACA601 45 2
Crop and forage production systems ACA603 45 2
Research Methods and Scientific Communication ACP 612 45 1
Biometrics for Agricultural Sciences ACS 600 45 1
Crop pest management ACS603 45 2
Plant nutrition and soil fertility ACS605 45 2
Food safety policy, standards and laws AFS 610 45 2
Nutrient cycling, modeling and management ALM 604 45 2
Irrigation and drainage ALM605 45 2
Project planning and management ALM606 45 2
Land degradation and rehabilitation ALM608 45 2
Watershed management ALM609 45 2
Remote sensing and GIS ALM610 45 1
Agricultural production systems ART601 45 1
Markets and marketing of agricultural products ART602 45 1
Environmental management and post harvest technology ART603 45 1
Biodiversity and biotechnology ART611 45 2
Biodiversity and animal genetic resources ART621 45 2
Animal nutrition and feed resources ART622 45 2
Animal production systems and animal health ART623 45 2
Integrated management systems in animal production ART624 45 2
Agricultural development planning ART631 45 2
Agricultural resource economics ART632 45 2
Social economics and resource management ART633 45 2
Resource policy and law ART634 45 2
Storage of agricultural products ART651 45 2
Processing and preservation of agricultural products ART652 45 2
Agro-industrial waste management ART653 45 2
Thesis (Equivalent to 8 courses) ART660 360 3